Neurovirulence and immunogenicity of attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses in nonhuman primates
In previous work, a prototypic recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana serotype (rVSIV) vector expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gag and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) env antigens protected nonhuman primates (NHPs) from disease following challenge with an HIV-1/SIV recombinant (SHIV). However, when tested in a stringent NHP neurovirulence (NV) model, this vector was not adequately attenuated for clinical evaluation. For the work described here, the prototypic rVSIV vector was attenuated by combining specific G protein truncations with either N gene translocations or mutations (M33A and M51A) that ablate expression of subgenic M polypeptides, by incorporation of temperature-sensitive mutations in the N and L genes, and by deletion of the VSIV G gene to generate a replicon that is dependent on trans expression of G protein for in vitro propagation. When evaluated in a series of NHP NV studies, these attenuated rVSIV variants caused no clinical disease and demonstrated a very significant reduction in neuropathology compared to wild-type VSIV and the prototypic rVSIV vaccine vector. In spite of greatly increased in vivo attenuation, some of the rVSIV vectors elicited cell-mediated immune responses that were similar in magnitude to those induced by the much more virulent prototypic vector. These data demonstrate novel approaches to the rational attenuation of VSIV NV while retaining vector immunogenicity and have led to identification of an rVSIV N4CT1gag1 vaccine vector that has now successfully completed phase I clinical evaluation.
- PMID Author:
Clarke DK, Nasar F, Chong S, Johnson JE, Coleman JW, Lee M, Witko SE, Kotash CS, Abdullah R, Megati S, Luckay A, Nowak B, Lackner A, Price RE, Little P, Kalyan N, Randolf V, Javadian A, Zamb TJ, Parks CL, Egan MA, Eldridge J, Hendry M, Udem SA
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