Envelope glycoprotein determinants of increased entry in a pathogenic simian human immunodeficiency virus SHIV HXBc2P 3 2 passaged in monkeys
Passage of a nonpathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-HXBc2) in monkeys resulted in changes in the viral envelope glycoproteins that are responsible for a dramatic increase in replication and pathogenicity in vivo. Here, we show that the envelope glycoproteins of the pathogenic SHIV-HXBc2P 3.2 mediate virus entry into rhesus monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) more efficiently than the parental SHIV-HXBc2 envelope glycoproteins, and study the basis for this increase. Both parental and pathogenic SHIVs exclusively use CXCR4 as a coreceptor. The determinants of the increased entry associated with the SHIV-HXBc2P 3.2 envelope glycoproteins are located in both the gp120 and gp41 subunits. Changes in the gp120 V3 variable loop specify a decreased sensitivity to SDF-1, consistent with an increase in the affinity of the HXBc2P 3.2 gp120 glycoprotein for CXCR4. Thus, multiple changes in the gp120 variable loops and the gp41 ectodomain of a pathogenic SHIV cooperate to allow enhanced replicative capacity, which in part results from increased chemokine receptor binding.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
Si Z, Gorry P, Babcock G, Owens CM, Cayabyab M, Phan N, Sodroski J