Complex type N glycan recognition by potent broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies
Broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies (bNAbs) can recognize carbohydrate-dependent epitopes on gp120. In contrast to previously characterized glycan-dependent bNAbs that recognize high-mannose N-glycans, PGT121 binds complex-type N-glycans in glycan microarrays. We isolated the B-cell clone encoding PGT121, which segregates into PGT121-like and 10-1074-like groups distinguished by sequence, binding affinity, carbohydrate recognition, and neutralizing activity. Group 10-1074 exhibits remarkable potency and breadth but no detectable binding to protein-free glycans. Crystal structures of unliganded PGT121, 10-1074, and their likely germ-line precursor reveal that differential carbohydrate recognition maps to a cleft between complementarity determining region (CDR)H2 and CDRH3. This cleft was occupied by a complex-type N-glycan in a 'liganded' PGT121 structure. Swapping glycan contact residues between PGT121 and 10-1074 confirmed their importance for neutralization. Although PGT121 binds complex-type N-glycans, PGT121 recognized high-mannose-only HIV envelopes in isolation and on virions. As HIV envelopes exhibit varying proportions of high-mannose- and complex-type N-glycans, these results suggest promiscuous carbohydrate interactions, an advantageous adaptation ensuring neutralization of all viruses within a given strain.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
Mouquet H, Scharf L, Euler Z, Liu Y, Eden C, Scheid JF, Halper-Stromberg A, Gnanapragasam PN, Spencer DI, Seaman MS, Schuitemaker H, Feizi T, Nussenzweig MC, Bjorkman PJ
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Complex-type N-glycan recognition by potent broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
2012;109(47):E3268-77 doi: 10.1073/pnas.1217207109