Policy

Thanks to significant recent progress in HIV vaccine research and development, scientists are increasingly confident that HIV vaccines will someday become available for general use. The only question is when that will happen. Getting there will require both sustained support for global HIV vaccine R&D and a policy environment that continues to encourage and enable such efforts. Cognizent of those needs, IAVI and its partners strive to:

To achieve these goals, IAVI works in concert with its advocacy and technical partners, including AVAC: Global Advocacy for HIV Prevention, the Futures Institute, the Global Health Technologies Coalition, the International Partnership for Microbicides and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS).

Annual Investment Trends in HIV Prevention Research and Development

Global preventive AIDS vaccine R&D investment totaled US$818 million in 2013, with the public sector providing US$666 million (81%), the philanthropic sector providing US$121 million (15%), and the commercial sector contributing US$31 million (4%). The 2013 total investment represents a decrease of US$29 million (4%) below global preventive AIDS vaccine R&D investment in 2012.

The United States government remained by far the largest investor in AIDS vaccines, providing US$585 million in 2013, even though total U.S. government funding decreased by US$38 million from 2012, driven by mandated across-the-board federal budget cuts. Funding from European public sector agencies totaled US$44 million, after reductions of almost US$8 million (15%) from 2012. Funding from philanthropic supporters for AIDS vaccines grew by around US$10 million dollars (approximately 10%) from 2012 to 2013. Meanwhile, estimated commercial funding in 2012 remained relatively flat at US$31 million.

The AIDS vaccine field has produced an abundance of promising data in recent years. However, given the long-term nature of AIDS vaccine development, its continued progress will require flexible and sustained investments in research and development.

This data was collected by the HIV Vaccines and Microbicides Resource Tracking Working Group, founded in 2004 to track global resources dedicated to the research and development of new biomedical tools for HIV prevention. The Working Group is a collaboration between AVAC: Global Advocacy for HIV Prevention, IAVI, and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Funding data assembled by the Working Group date back to 2000 and have enabled the systematic tracking of investments and trends in the advancement of new tools and strategies to prevent HIV.

The Working Group’s most recent report, HIV Prevention Research & Development Investment in 2013: In a changing global development, economic, and human rights landscape, was issued in July 2014. It covers investments through 2013 on preventive and therapeutic vaccines against HIV, microbicides, adult male circumcision, female condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and HSV-2 prevention, as well as developing and improving strategies for prevention of mother-to-child vertical HIV transmission at birth and during breastfeeding.

AIDS Vaccine Funding, 2000-2013

AIDS Vaccine Funding, 2000-2013

For more information on the Working Group, archived reports and materials, and information on its members, please visit http://www.hivresourcetracking.org.

The Potential Health Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of an AIDS Vaccine

IAVI and the Futures Institute, with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), have developed a model to estimate the impact that preventive AIDS vaccines could have on HIV epidemics at both national and global levels. Such projections can assist policymakers, vaccine developers, advocates and funders make informed decisions and effective resource allocations. Such modeling has shown that a vaccine could avert millions of new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths, and will be needed to end AIDS even if ambitious targets for access to HIV prevention, treatment and care are reached before a vaccine is introduced.

The IAVI/Futures Institute model is designed to align with frameworks developed by UNAIDS to determine the scope of the current global epidemic and project the future trajectory of HIV/AIDS in response to investments in available and new treatment and prevention of options. Most recently, a publication in PLoS One summarized the results of the UNAIDS Investment Framework Enhanced (IFE) that explored how scaling up existing HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention options, implementing new WHO treatment guidelines, and adding new HIV prevention technologies, including a vaccine, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PreP) and treatment-as-prevention (TasP), could reduce new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) by up to 80% by 2050.

Building on the UNAIDS IFE and in close consultation with experts in AIDS vaccine development, vaccine delivery in developing world countries, and public health from across the world, IAVI developed more-in depth assumptions to evaluate in more detail the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of an AIDS vaccine within the existing health care systems. First results were debuted at the recent HIV Research for Prevention (HIV R4P) conference in a poster, "Exploring the Impact of and Requirements for Adding a Vaccine to the Updated UNAIDS Investment Framework to End AIDS". The model shows that under reasonable assumptions, a vaccine could reduce annual infections by 78-85% by 2070 depending on how effectively other interventions have been implemented, and would be cost-effective in low-income countries under any background scenario.

IAVI and the Futures Institute also have collaborated with researchers and policymakers on models which allow exploring the impact of AIDS vaccines at country level in Kenya, Uganda, Brazil and China.

Interactive Impact Modeling Tool
This interactive tool, also based on the IAVI/Futures Institute vaccine model, allows users to explore the interaction of future potential preventive AIDS vaccines with existing HIV-prevention tools within an HIV epidemic representative of one of five regions: Southern Africa, Eastern Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Eastern Europe.